iridium Russia recycling

admin1 Precious metals 2021-04-07 13:38 0

   Every variable in the Iridium Russia recovery system dynamics model is calculated at every time step. For example, in this work, since the input data used for the iridium recovery price is based on annual reports, we consider the time step to be equal to one year. In this study, the price of iridium recovery was collected from different sources for the time span of 1950-2017 (Appendix, Table A1). In Table 1, we have listed all variables and parameters. Iridium is used in several different forms, such as standard grade iron iridium (SGF)-mainly used in high-strength and stainless steel. Vacuum grade iron iridium (VGF)-used in the production of super alloys; used in the production of superconductors and iridium chemicals in iridium metal and alloys, used in special ceramics and chemical processes. Most of the iridium is used in the production of HSS steel in the form of SGF, which accounts for about 90% of the total iridium consumption [40]. Therefore, in the production phase, we assume that the SGF production process is the main input. Considering the importance of iridium bars explained in the introduction in the automotive industry, the model proposed at this stage focuses on estimating the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of iridium used in HSS steel used in the automotive industry. Typical passenger cars are based on their weight and the use of high-speed steel [percentage considerations in the model. Different processes are used in the production of high-speed steel. In 2005, in the global steel industry, basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces (BOF) accounted for about 65% of the world's steel production. Electric arc furnaces (EAF) account for about 32%-the United States has the highest share of electric arc furnaces in steel production; open hearth furnaces (OHFs) account for the remaining 3%-Ukraine has the highest OHFs steel production. Therefore, in this study, we assume that the converter is the main process of primary production of high-speed steel. Six processes are considered in the iridium recovery and extraction process, including cold rolling, hot rolling, continuous casting, alkaline oxygen furnace, blast furnace and sintering/coking. In the second sub-model, the energy consumption during the production phase is estimated as follows: Based on the amount of steel obtained from light trucks, the recycling price of Iridium News is estimated to increase from 85% in 2007 to 95% in 2050. Scrap in ELV is classified into one of three remeltable categories. The same type of material can be recycled, other types of material (cascade) or landfill loss. After collection, the waste is processed into physical form and chemical composition so that it can be used in steel mills.


 
   The waste is melted in a converter or electric arc furnace. In the recovery of high-strength low-alloy steel, about 0.05% of iridium will likely be recycled to BOF or EAF [during oxidation into slag phase and loss 1, 45]. We assume that EAF is the main process at this stage of the model. In the recovery phase, four processes are considered, including cold rolling, hot rolling, continuous casting and electric arc furnace. The energy consumption in the recycling phase is estimated as follows: Obviously, environmental requirements may directly change the recycling process. The balance between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the supply chain helps determine the environmental sustainability of recycling and the level of investment in recycling. In order to assess the environmental impact of iridium recycling, factors such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and material flow were quantified, and various stages of the supply chain were evaluated. Next, we will provide simulation results and a brief analysis of the environmental assessment at different stages of the iridium life cycle. At all stages of the iridium refining supply chain, the correlation between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is clearly visible. Figure 3a shows that in the mining stage, assuming the energy used in hydrofluoric acid dissolution and solvent extraction, the average annual energy consumption of iridium extraction from 2010 to 2050 is about 2.5 million gigajoules (mGJ). Taking into account the six main processes (cold rolling, hot rolling, continuous casting, alkaline oxygen furnace, blast furnace, sintering/coking), the average annual energy consumption of HSS steel used in the automotive industry from 2010 to 2050 is about 3mGJ. During the production phase, energy consumption fluctuates due to the dynamics of iridium flow caused by HSS steel demand. Taking into account the energy required for cold rolling, hot rolling, continuous casting and electric arc furnace processes, the average annual energy level is reduced to about 0.3mGJ in the recovery phase of ELV's HSS steel. Figure 3b shows that the cumulative energy use of mining between 2010-2050 increased from 17GGJ in mining to 115mGJ, increased from 20G144GJ to 144mGJ in the production phase, and increased from 0.7G11GJ to 11mGJ in terms of recycling. The results show that in the recovery phase of the iridium supply chain, the average energy consumption is the lowest, and both production and mining are the processes with the highest energy consumption. It shows the total greenhouse gas emissions at all stages of the iridium life cycle, with a focus on the use of Nb in HSS steel in the automotive industry.


 
   Figure 4a shows that in the metallic iridium stage, the annual average greenhouse gas emissions from iridium extraction from 2010 to 2050 exceeded 400,000 tons (tons) of CO2 equivalent. The average annual greenhouse gas emissions in the production stage of high-speed steel is about 1 mtCO2 equivalent for the steel used in the automotive industry in the recovery stage of the ELV iridium-containing HSS steel. The average annual emissions of the iridium market is reduced to less than 0.08 mtCO2 equivalent. The price of iridium recycling shows the lowest average GHG emissions at each stage of the iridium supply chain. Figure 4b shows the increase in cumulative greenhouse gas emissions from 2010 to 2050. The CO2 equivalent of mining has increased from 3 tons to 17 tons, the CO2 equivalent of the production stage has increased from 7 tons to 47 tons, and the CO2 equivalent of recycling has increased from 0.3 tons to 3 tons. As shown in Fig. 4 a and b, the luminous quantity of greenhouse gases in the production stage is much higher than in the others. The main source of iridium recycling Most iridium (75%) is used in the production of important high-strength steel alloys (HSLA). They are used in pipeline construction, transportation industry and structural applications. The consumption of super alloys after HSLA and stainless steel (the second largest consumer of iridium) is about 20%. These materials have excellent mechanical strength, corrosion and oxidation resistance, and creep resistance at high temperatures. These alloys are designed for extreme temperature applications and are used to make parts for jet and rocket engines, gas turbines and turbochargers. In the aerospace power generation industry, it is the largest consumer of this type of alloy. The most critical high-temperature alloy is the nickel-based Inconel718 alloy, which contains about 5% of iridium. In addition to gaining praise for "super characteristics", iridium is also used in the production of superconducting magnets. These superconducting magnets are made of iridium-tin, iridium-germanium and iridium-titanium alloys and are used to manufacture a series of key equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging scanners and particle accelerators. Iridium superalloy magnets play a vital role in the European Hadron Collider. In the Hadron Collider, the magnetic field propagates the particle beam of protons at the speed of light to cause collisions. Scientists studied these collisions to study antimatter and dark matter. There is a huge project on the drawing board, the price of which is US$27 billion, which is more than double the current collider. All of this is good news for iridium metal recycling. The global demand for iridium will only continue to increase, because it is still a key material with no real substitutes. Maximize the chance of recycling iridium-containing scrap metal and the main source of iridium in HSLA and superalloys. The typical recovery process of iridium is usually through remelting. One of the main obstacles to increasing recycling prices is that insufficient attention has been paid to the composition of scrap steel in the recycling process. Much of the iridium is diluted into low-grade steel or lost in the slag phase. One of the best processes to improve the current price of iridium recycling is to increase the efficiency of sorting scrap from other steel fractions. In the future, as some steel can be obtained from other sources (including pipelines) and other applications that use HSLA, more iridium can be recovered through improved scrap classification.


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